Articles: Essays on Sikh
Values: Name of My Lord
Name of My Lord
Recitation of the Name of God
Jaap means ‘recitation.’ It is repeating the name of
God. It may be verbal or mental. We start with verbal Jaap and develop
it into the mental one. Verbal Jaap is the starting or gross stage of Jaap.
In it, there is so called a perceptible Naam (perceptible name of God -
you know you are reciting it).
Ajapaa-Jaap is a Jaap (recitation) without doing Jaap.
In this, recitation of the name of God (Jaap) becomes a habit. It is a
Jaap without effort - an effortless Jaap. The Jaap of the Name (Naam -
name of God) keeps going on verbally, or silently in the mind. Whatever
might one be doing, the act of Jaap is there. The constant Jaap leads to
Ajapaa-Jaap. This is the middle i.e. subtle stage of Jaap - imperceptible
Naam: the recitation becomes automatic like a habit.
Simran is remembrance. The mind gets filled with the
constant remembrance of God, and there is no more recitation of His name
(Waheguru). Only the remembrance of God is left - an unbroken thought of
Him. God is always in the mind regardless of what one might be busy with.
It is an advanced stage of the seeker - practitioner (one reciting the
Naam). It is the third i.e. transcendental stage of the Jaap. This is the
Naam beyond perception (recitation without knowing it - Just the thought).
Dheaan is meditation - contemplation on God. It is thinking
about God and is different from Jaap - recitation of His name. Dhean is
the process of thinking about Him may be with changing thoughts.
In the Naam-Jaap, there is recitation of the name of God,
and it stays the same without any change. The mind keeps set on God. The
mind is set on the Name as it is, without its modification - no changing
thoughts about Him, no thinking about various aspects of the Name.
From time to time and depending on the level of advancement,
all these stages (starting, middle, advanced) keep overlapping each other,
to lesser or greater extent, when doing the practice of Naam - Naam-Jaap.
In whatever form - gross, subtle, or transcendental, all is the play and
flow of Naam (vibrating or active Naam), may be it is in its perceptible,
imperceptible, or so-called ‘beyond even imperception’ form. We may or
may not be able to comprehend it, but there always is manifestation of
Naam is the Gurmantar - formula given by the Guru (Prophet)
and for the Sikhs, it is the word ‘Waheguru.’ It means, ‘the wonderful
one who removes ignorance” i.e. the giver of the light of God - His knowledge.
It is also called ‘Shabad’ or “Word.” The word ‘Waheguru’ not combined
with any other word is for the Sikhs to recite - to do Jaap. Only the word
‘Waheguru’ is the Naam. The pure Naam-Jaap is recitation only of the word
‘Waheguru.’ In the Sikh world, ‘Naam-Jaap’ pertains to recitation
of the word ‘Waheguru.’
It is another story that some, even the advanced practitioners
like established saints, combine ‘Waheguru’ with ‘Satte-Naamu’ (True Name)
etc. for their recitation i.e. ‘Satte-Naamu - Waheguru,’ and advise their
followers to do the same. ‘Satte-Naamu’ qualifies ‘Waheguru.’
It is the question of one’s faith, and practically is okay with whatever
word Waheguru is combined. The central word is ‘Waheguru’ and it has to
be there. In the Sikh faith, without the word ‘Waheguru,’ it is not
the ‘Naam-Jaap,’ or Jaap of Naam. For the pure Naam-Jaap, nothing should
be added to the word “Waheguru.”
Mool-Mantar is the basic, or fundamental formula and
Ikk-O-Ankaar Satte-Naamu Kartaa Purukhu Nir-Bhaao
Nir-Vaaeru Akaal Moorat-e Ajoonee Saae-bhann Gur-parsaad.e
We have to be careful; the word is ‘Bhann’ and not ‘Bhang.’
‘Saae bhann’ means ‘Created by His own Self.’ ‘Bhang’ is Indian-hemp i.e.
marjuana, a drug - a habit forming intoxicant.
God is all pervading, the truth (immortal), the doer,
fears none, without animosity, unbound by the time (above the birth and
death), above reincarnation or transmigration, is self-created, and is
realized by His grace.
‘Reincarnation,’ is a man or woman getting reborn as a
man or woman after his or her death. Transmigration is when a man or woman
gets reborn as some other animal after his or her death.
Some believe, the Mool-Mantar is -
Ikk-O-Ankaar Satte-Naamu Kartaa Purukhu Nir-Bhaao
Nir-Vaaeru Akaal Moorat-e Ajoonee Saae-bhannn Gur-parsaade” Jappu. Aade
Sachu Jugaad Sachu. haaebhee Sachu.Naanak hosee bhee Sachu.
According to the Sikh philosophy, God does not incarnate
- born in the form of a man. As well, He never transmigrates - does not
change His form into different species.
God is all pervading, the Truth (immortal), the doer,
fears none, without animosity, unbound by the time (above birth and death),
above reincarnation or transmigration, self-created, and is realized by
His grace. “Jappu” - (Recite it). He is primordial (from before the beginning
of the world), the Truth, from the time immemorial. He is the Truth (immortal).
Nanak, He shall ever be the Truth!
Mool-Mantar is also for Jaap. Its Jaap is the ‘Jaap of
Mool-Mantar,’ and not ‘Jaap of the Naam.’ Mool-Mantar is the description
of the word ‘Waheguru’ (God). In general, the people call ‘Naam’ to every
Shabad - The Holy Hymn
The Jaap of a Shabad, Slok, Paurree, or a Tukk - will
go after the name of that i.e. ‘the Jaap of Shabad (Hymn),’ the Jaap of
Paurree (a type of verse),’ ‘the Jaap of Slok (a sort of poetry),’ or ‘the
Jaap of Tukk (a line)’ etc. Although not approved, the self- oriented Jaap
of a Shabad is very common. Mostly, a suitable Shabad is recited for the
fulfillment of some desire. Selfless Jaap of a Shabad is also widely practiced.
Amrit-Velaa - Early Morning Hours
Ambrosial hours - the divine time. It is the last 3 hours
of the night i.e. very early in the morning - 3 A.M. to 6 A.M.; before
the sunrise. Many practitioners, or saints get up at 2 A.M., or even soon
after the mid-night. This is soothing and calm time, and most suitable
for the Naam-Jaap - recitation of the name of God. Commonly, the people
practice Naam at the junction of different times -
Many people consider the union-times auspicious, or more
effective for the Naam-Jaap. The early morning is understandable, more
calm and peaceful, but what with the other times! Sikhs do not get bound
down by the time.
Union of the night with the day - Amritvela, ambrosial hours,
3 A.M. to 6 A.M. It ends with the sunrise.
Noon - Union of the forenoon with the noon. Rising day meets
the falling day.
Evening - Union of the day with the night. The sunset time.
Midnight - The times of union of the rising night with the
Mala - Rosary
Mala - a rosary is a string of beads. It is usually used
to keep a count of the Jaap. Generally, keeping the count of a Jaap is
not considered great.
Keeping a count of Jaap helps to organize the Jaap session
according to the available time, and the time-length (duration) fixed for
doing it. Though, the self-oriented Jaap (selfish, to fulfill a wish) is
not approved, many do the Jaap of a Shabad - Hymn etc., keeping a count
of it with an aim to get some boon.
Others keep the count even though they have no motive.
A Mala keeps the mind engaged, reminds for the Naam-Jaap, and is a sign
for the others not to gossip with the person.
A regular mala has 108 beads (following the tradition
of astrology, 12 stars - planetary houses, and their 9 time-positions:
12 X 9 = 108. The Sikhs do not believe in such things).
Simarna is a wrist size band of 36 beads, 1/3 of the regular
size of mala. Mostly, it is not used to keep any count of Jaap, and is
easy to work when one is active i.e. walking, traveling etc.
PRACTICE OF JAAP
It is right (correct) in any way you recite the name of
God, because there is no set or a single method of doing it. Although,
basics are the same in general, almost every instructor has a personal
of practicing the Naam-Jaap, or will modify it according to his own experience
or some motive, may be selfish - to put his or her own stamp on it. The
only thing is to take a start, and the help comes from the Almighty in
one or the other way. If there is a problem, consult any practitioner of
In pursuing a good cause, there can never be any wrong
(error), and so no one ever needs to worry about committing a blunder or
a sin when doing Jaap without instructions from any adept. The Gurbani
is the instructor of the Sikhs. When doing its Jaap, Naam takes away sins,
and does not add to them, one may do it in any way. Guru ji bestows on
everyone the right to do the Naam-Jaap. By practicing it, the Guru’s orders
get followed. The Jaap should be done with concentration, and all other
things should be ignored. Anybody fixing conditions for doing it
commits a blunder and a gross wrong.
Important is concentration, not the methods, and this
is the fundamental must for resorting to the Jaap of His name. We should
go slow but steady, and need to be regular in our practice of the Naam
Jaap. The time allotted for each session should be increased gradually
so that the mind and body are without strain. We have to go on in sehj
- a relaxed way (equipoise, tension-free), and need not be stubborn (obstinate)
for our any goal or practice. In doing Jaap, we should move to the next
step when we are well versed at the level we are.
According to the occasion and need, instructions are modified.
The sequence of different steps and their contents may as well get affected
to simplify the subject in an effort to make it easily understandable and
Every technique of the Naam Jaap is nothing but an effort
to achieve concentration on recitation of the Naam - ‘Waheguru.’ There
are a few preliminaries for practicing the Naam -
Practice of the Naam
The foundation of Jaap is an ethical life. Jaap itself elevates
the man. The desire for an ethical life and Naam Jaap is stimulated and
more easily attained in association with a good Sangat - company of the
God-oriented people. One has to be humble, compassionate, truthful, sincere,
and honest. He or she should have an honest avocation, do selfless service
(sharing), and be selfless with universal love and other good traits. One
should be tolerant, adjustable, accommodating and understanding. One should
forgive and forget. These qualities are essential to achieve calmness and
to stay in peace.
In the morning, use rest room - bathroom, brush the teeth,
bathe or wash up with cold or warm water depending on your habit or health,
put on loose clothes as per season and weather. You may take bed tea if
you have the habit. Most of the practitioners stay empty stomach.
Sit down straight back, cross-legged on a thick soft
padding, at any calm place, facing any direction. The hands should be resting
in the lap with the fingers slightly and lightly crossed.
If, due to some infirmity or handicap, it is not possible
to sit cross-legged, or on the hard surface e.g. a floor, use any other
seat. A suitable chair may be helpful - it is not a luxury but a dire need.
When sitting cross-legged, never allow your feet and
legs to start tingling or to become numbed. This is caused by pressure
on the blood vessels and nerves, and can prove harmful - cause weakness
of the limbs (paresis). Get up if tingling comes up, move about, and sit
down again when it clears up.
Environment. The place should be tidy and clean, and you
may keep flowers there, or use a fragrance if you like it. If you have
this facility at home, the best place to sit is the room reserved for Guru
Granth Sahib - the Sikh Holy Book. Many of the Sikhs have pictures of the
Gurus in their prayer rooms. It is a personal choice and understanding.
For the Sikhs, the pictures of the Gurus are not for worship, but provide
the ideal role models. These sanctify the environment, boost morale and
create a base for imagination. Such things give the place an aura of Naam
- spirituality. Right on entering such a room, one becomes eager to sit
down for the Jaap.
The pure Gurbani Kirtan: devotional singing. Prerecorded
Kirtan without any katha i.e. sermons (preaching), may enhance the effect
of environment. The instrumental music may be more helpful. Be still, calm
and quiet. The volume should be low enough not to interfere with the Jaap
Before starting the Naam-Jaap, vocal recitation - may be
singing of ‘Waheguru,’ or ‘Satte-Naamu - Waheguru,’ or some Shabad - Hymn,
or Gurbani Parmaans - quotations from the Scriptures, for a while, sets
up mood for the Naam Jaap session.
If distracted during the Jaap, may be by sleep, for some
time do the loud recitation of the Naam ‘Waheguru,” may be after washing
your face, and if needed by standing up.
When doing the Naam-Jaap, for concentration bring into the
mind (visualize) as many things related to the Jaap as possible. Develop
the habit of feeling the presence of Waheguru - God. Try to perceive the
sound or imaginary sound of the word ‘Waheguru.’ The word Waheguru vwihgurU
vwihgurU itself, or the symbol ‘Ik-Onkar’ both written as in Gurmukhi
<> - may be imagined fixed at a point slightly above and between the
inner ends of the two eyebrows - Mid-Brow Point.
Anyone professing another faith may replace the prophet,
place of worship, mantra for Jaap, and the symbol to focus on, with the
one of his or her own choice. The basic essence of the method of recitation
will remain the same for everyone. One may make selections and modifications
as per one’s own personal discipline, need and demand of the faith.
There are so many ways to do the Jaap of the Naam, and
here is the one commonly practiced.
Fold your both hands, bow to the Guru or Guru Granth
Sahib, and pray, “Lord, bless me with the Naam and concentration on it”
etc. Constantly feel that you are in the presence of the Guru. Some may
have their own choice of the Guru - Guru Nanak, Guru Gobind Singh etc.
When imagining the Guru, feel that he is there before you. You may bow
to the Guru Granth Sahib in a Gurdwara you visit, but this is your choice.
Perceive the presence of God at all the times.
You may start with vocally reciting “Waheguru, Waheguru,”
without any restraint or inhibition. It may be with or without a Mala -
rosary, or a musical instrument. Gradually, recitation will become without
any Mala, or instrument, and ultimately it will become mental, without
making any sound. The musical instruments will enhance the atmosphere of
the Naam. The Naam-Jaap in a company (with the Sangat) gives incentive
for reciting the name of God. All such things help to bring together the
scattered thoughts. The recorded music, especially instrumental, may be
played. Music helps to relax and concentrate the mind. The soft and subtle
music is elevating.
Sit down properly, as per your convenience. Do the Jaap of
“Waheguru,” speaking out the Word (loudly), hearing the voice, and concentrating
on it. In the background, God is always there in the mind. When well practiced,
go to the next step.
Sit down properly. Do Jaap of “Waheguru” in a whisper, lightly
focusing both eyes at the tip of the nose. When practiced, close your eyes
when focusing. Try to hear your whisper, concentrate on the whispered word
“Waheguru,” and keep God in the mind. When well practiced, move to the
Whenever focusing eyes at any point, do so free from
stress and strain on them, and turn them in very lightly. Turning eyes
in too much, and with strain, will lead to headache.
Sit down properly. Do the silent Jaap of the Naam “Waheguru”
at the level of your throat (in the throat).
If you can, concentrate on the imaginary sound of the
Focus your closed eyes at the bridge of your nose (where
the bridge of glasses stays normally). When well practiced, move to the
Silent Jaap of “Waheguru.” Recite “Waheguru” in your
heart (mentally), without making any sound.
Concentrate on the Shabad (Word) “Waheguru,” and its
Focus your closed eyes on the space between your two
eyebrows, and slightly higher up - Mid-Brow Point, where the women put
on Bindi - a small colored disc or color-mark.
Link the Jaap to breathing -
When inhaling - breathing in, mentally say “Wahe.”
When exhaling - breathing out, mentally say “Guru.”
When well practiced, move to the next step.
Place Ik-Onkar, as written in Gurmukhi <>
at the mid-brow point - a little higher to the inner ends of the both eyebrows.
Focus both the eyes on it.
Do silent Jaap of ‘Waheguru’ linked to breathing -
Concentrate on <>
Ik-Oankar, on ‘Wahe’ plus ‘Guru’… and on their imaginary sound (if you
Completion of the Jaap
Continue the Jaap for your fixed (allotted) time-period.
Increase the time of your sittings very gradually. Do not let your
legs to tingle or sleep.
Bow at the feet of the Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, and thank,
“ Thanks my Lord for blessing me with the Naam, and for concentration on
Do five malas: rosaries, of the ‘Waheguru’ recitation,
saying it mentally or verbally once at each bead.
Do one mala of Mool-Mantar.
Bow to the Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, once again, and thank
for the boon of Naam, and ability to do its Jaap.
Sangat - Congregation
This session of your Jaap is over.
Company of the other practitioners of the Naam, boosts
morale and creates eagerness to do the Jaap. It is usually done in the
presence of Guru Granth Sahib. It may be -
To clarify any point regarding the Naam Jaap, it is best
to consult some local Naam practicing Gurmukh - God-oriented person. The
study of any advanced material, if available, is also suggested.
by recitation of the name of God
Verbal Jaap - Doing the Jaap loudly, mostly by singing together.
Gradually, gusto and tempo of singing fast and with force is reached, and
after that they slow down equally gradually. Such ebbs and tides of singing
continue in the form of Naam-Jaap with Kirtan (devotional singing) of the
selected Hymns. Mostly, the word ‘Waheguru,’ is mixed with ‘Satte-Naamu
- Waheguru,’ the suitable Shabads, Gurbani quotes, and stanzas from the
Gurbani. It is accompanied by the forceful musical instruments, especially
drums, chhaenae (bronze discs) - cymbals, chimtaae (long iron calipers
- tongs), khartaals - wooden strikers, etc. Harmonium is a common instrument
for Kirtan - devotional singing. The lead may be given in turn by different
individuals or groups, and session may continue for one to several hours,
or even overnight called Raaen-Sabaaee Keertan - Keertan for whole of the
night (night vigil).
Loud singing of Gurbani - the Scriptures, immediately lifts the mind to
the level of leentaa - attachment to the Naam. For reaching precise concentration,
mental (silent) Jaap has its own significance and value.
Mental Jaap - In the Sangat, the Jaap after it becomes soft,
becomes a silent Jaap. After ending the silent Jaap, it goes into gusto
once again, and is tapered down to stop.
Real attainment by remembering God is His Darshan - seeing
Him: realization. A realized person surrenders to the will of the Lord,
and peace prevails on him or her. He or she is no more agitated, irritated,
angry, disappointed, dejected, abandoned, and stays detached from the worldly
attachments. Besides this state of mind, all other attainments are
supernatural. Even these come to a God-oriented person through Naam-Jaap
(recitation of His name), although he may reject these. Such an evolved
and saintly fellow is emancipated even when alive.
Attainments by doing the Naam-Jaap are the same for everyone,
but there are individual variations and experiences. These are modified
mostly by the faith (belief) one has in one or the other thing. It is not
considered of a great merit to work to attain unusual powers intentionally.
Depending on what you deserve, some of these will come automatically, but
the adepts advise to refrain from displaying them. These can cause ego
which is detrimental to the God realization.
The greatest miracle achieved is that the practitioner
of the Naam attains peace, and becomes socially
oriented and ethical with love for the human beings,
God, Guru, and Gurbani. He submits to the will of God and attains the peace
One should go into total contentment if one achieves mental
peace, and attains surrender to God. No one should get disappointed that
one did not meet God (see Him) even in spite of one’s intense Naam-Jaap.
Seeing or meeting God is -
All these go together and boil down to “God realization -
seeing the Lord.” God has no visible form, and He is seen through
third-eye: eye of knowledge - becoming aware of him (His realization).
Realization that He is the Doer, is everywhere, and is in
Staying constantly connected to God.
Seeing God in everything.
Absolute peace of mind, and total surrender to the will of
A firm belief that all the humans are equal, the same and
extension of the Lord.
Development of the selfless love, and selfless service to
Becoming humble, compassionate, truthful, honest, and sincere.
The following are some supernatural attainments that we
generally consider as the usual attainments by the Jaap of the Naam - recitation
of the Name of God. In fact, a true seeker, does not care for such powers,
and does not work to acquire them.