Sikhism: Gurus: Guru
Guru Gobind Singh is the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. He was
the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. He was born to Mata Gujri on December
22, 1666 at Sri Patna Sahib in Bihar when his father was on a preaching
mission to holy places in Assam.
|Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, Self Defence and Self-Sacrifice.
Birth name of the Guru was Gobind Rai. He was anointed
Guru at the age of nine after the martyrdom of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur
Ji at Delhi.
Guru Gobind Singh had four sons namely;
Guru Gobind Singh revealed the order of Khalsa Brotherhood
at Sri Anandpur Sahib.
Baba Ajit Singh,
Baba Jujhar Singh,
Baba Zorawar Singh,
Baba Fateh Singh.
On the day of Baisakhi in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib,
Guru Gobind Singh urged the Sikhs to take a pledge to lead a pure life
as taught by the other nine Gurus.
Amrit was prepared and first five Sikhs were initiated
into the order of Khalsa Panth. Thereafter, the Guru took initiation from
the Panj Pyaras and merged entity of Guru into Panth and entity of Panth
into Guru. Guru Gobind Singh gave the name of 'Singh' and 'Kaur' to males
and females respectively to be used after their first name.
The Sikhs were ordained to wear five Kakars and
also to lead an exemplary life of Sikh Reht. They were required to stay
away from committing Kurehts, that is, they were ordained
not to trim hair, not to use intoxicants, not to eat Kutha
meat and never to commit adultery.
All this happened at a place now called Takht Sri Kesgarh
at Anandpur Sahib. Hola Mohalla and Baisakhi is celebrated every year at
Sri Anandpur Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh gave enormous importance to the Khalsa
Reht and wearing of five articles of Sikh faith.He specifically stated
that so long as Khalsa lives under Reht and discipline, I am delighted
“Rehani rahe soi Sikh mera, oh Sahib mein
uss ka chera.”
Panj Pyaras (Chosen Ones)
The Panj Pyaras were ordained to wear Five Kakars viz.
Bhai Daya Ram, thirty years old, a Khatri from Lahore,
now in Pakistan; He was named as Bhai Daya Singh after being baptised.
Bhai Dharm Das, thirty years plus old, Jat-Agriculturist
from Rohtak / Hastna Pur; He was named as Bhai Dharm Singh after being
Bhai Himmat Rai, thirty eight years old cook
from Jhiwar (Water carrier) caste, Jagan Nath Puri in Orissa; He
was named as Bhai Himmat Singh after being baptised.
Bhai Sahib Chand, thirty seven years old Sudra
and barber by caste from Bidar in Karnataka. He was named as Bhai Sahib
Singh after being baptised.
Bhai Mohkam Chand thirty six years old Washerman from Dwarka
in Gujrat. He was named as Bhai Mohkam Singh after being initiated.
Guru Gobind Singh conferred the appellation of ‘Singh’
to men and ‘Kaur’ to women. They were required to stay away from four Kurehts
and live a pure and pious life to attain God.
Kes (uncut hair)
Kara (Steel wristband)
Four Kurehts are:
Guru Gobind Singh fought many battles for liberty, equality
and fraternity. Pir Budhu Shah fought for Guru Gobind Singh in the battle
Guru Gobind Singh had to vacate Anandpur Sahib in good faith
during 1704. Army of the enemy attacked him at night when the Guru was
crossing rivulet Sirsa. Last battle was fought against tyrant Mughals at
Khidrana, Muktsar (Punjab, India).
Eating Kutha meat
Using of Tobacco and intoxicants
The Guru sacrificed his great grand father, father, four
sons and mother for the Khalsa Panth.
Guru Gobind Singh advocated,
“when all other means fail to uphold righteousness,
it is morally right to take up arms.”
He added Bani of Guru Tegh Bahadur into Adi Granth at Damdama
Sahib and conferred Guruship upon Granth Sahib on October 6, 1708
at Nanded before he died on October 7, 1708. Thereafter, the Adi Granth
came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Gobind Singh was a great warrior and a spiritual leader. He had to spend
most of his time fighting against the oppression and suppression committed
by the unjust forces. He was a unique nation builder who fought for righteousness.
He sacrificed his all for human liberty, equality and fraternity.
Two of his youngest sons were bricked alive. Sahibzada
Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh were martyred in the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh composed several works which later were
compiled into Dasam Granth by Bhai Mani Singh.
Before his departure from this world, Guru Gobind Singh
detailed Banda Singh Bahadur to fight against oppression and suppression.
Successor to Gurgaddi
Guru Gobind Singh conferred Guruship on Granth Sahib on
October 6, 1708. Thus Granth Sahib became Sri Guiru Granth Sahib.
Ruler of India
Aurangzeb from 1658 to 1707 A.D.
Bahadur Shah from 1707 to 1708 A.D.
Inaugurated Khalsa on March 29, 1699 by initiating Amrit
to Panj Pyaras.
Gave gift of Five Kakars and Sikh Code of Conduct.
Author of Dasam Granth.
Conferred Guruship upon Granth Sahib in 1708.
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