Sikhism: Gurus: Guru
Guru Tegh Bahadur is the ninth Guru of the Sikhs. He was
the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib. He was born on April 1, 1621
at Amritsar. His mother was Bibi Nanki. His birth name was Tyag Mal but
keeping in view his courage and bravery, he was named Tegh Bahadur.
|Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Calmness, Tranquility and Detachment.
At the time of his eternal rest, Guru Har Krishan Ji bowed
down saying, “Baba Bakale” ie. my successor is at Bakala.
Tegh Bahadur meditated at Bakala for about twenty years (1644-1664)
and lived there with his wife Mata Gujari and mother Mata Nanaki. He was
revealed at Bakala by Bhai Makhan Shah Lobana, a rich businessman.
Tegh Bahadur was installed Guru on March 30, 1664 when
he was living at Baba Bakala. He made long tours to spread the kingdom
of God on earth.
Once he went to visit Sri Harmandar Sahib at Amritsar
but the Masands did not allow him to go inside and slammed the doors at
He helped the Kashmiri Pundits to take stand against the
Mughal pressure for conversion to Islam. He offered to sacrifice everything
for the cause of righteousness
Tegh Bahadur was arrested by Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor. Three devout
Sikhs who accompanied the Guru were arrested and martyred in front
of Guru Tegh Bahadur at Delhi.
Guru Tegh Bahadur was given three options by the Emperor
Bhai Mati Das
Bhai Sati Das
The Guru preferred the latter. His head was chopped off publicly
at Chandni Chowk Delhi on November 11, 1675 for being protector of
fumdamental human rights.
Severed head of Guru Tegh Bahadur was presented respectfully
to Guru Gobind Singh by Bhai Jaita at Sri Anandpur Sahib in Punjab.
Gurdwara Sis Ganj has been erected inside the town of Anandpur
Sahib where the severed and revered head of the Guru was cremated.
either to embrace Islam,
or to perform miracles
or be ready for death.
The headless body was taken away by Bhai Lakhi Shah Vanjara
who cremated it respectfully at his place in Delhi on November 12, 1675.
Gurdwara Rakab Ganj was erected at this location to commemorate the incidence.
This is the second unique martyrdom among the Sikh Gurus.
In this case, there ocurred two cremations ie. one of the severed head
at Sri Anandpur Sahib and second cremation of the body in Delhi.
Guru Gobind Singh son of Guru Tegh Bahadur was a child
of 9 years when he was called upon to shoulder the responsibilities of
Guru Tegh Bahadur is called “Hind Di Chaddar”
(Protector of India) for upholding the “Right to Freedom of Religion”.
Gurdwara Sis-Ganj was erected at Chandni Chowk Delhi where head of the
Guru was chopped off.
Kankan Kavi writes that once you promise allegiance to
any body, sacrifice your head but do not let him down at any cost. He gives
example of Guru Tegh Bahadur who sacrificed his life but did not falter
from his faith.
bwhy ijnw dI pkVIAY
isru dIjY bwhy n CoVIAY |
Bani of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was entered into Sri Guru Granth
Sahib by Guru Gobind Singh at Talwandi Sabo, Takht
Sri Damdama Sahib.
qyg bhwdr boilAw Dir meIAY
Drm n CoVIAY |
(Sanchhep Das Gur Katha by Dr Gurmukh Singh, p.57)
Gobind Rai son of Guru Tegh Bahadur was nominated to Gurgaddi.
Guru Tegh Bahadur traveled extensively covering
parts of Punjab, U.P, Assam, Bengal and Bihar etc.
Guru Tegh Bahadur composed 116 Shabads in 15 Ragas. His
Bani gives the message of non-attachment.
Guru Tegh Bahadur founded the city of Anandpur Sahib in
Ruler of India
Aurangzeb from 1658 to 1707 A.D.
(Gurdwara ) at Delhi
For more reading,
Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Chandni Chowk Delhi (Beheaded at this
Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, Delhi (Body was cremated)