A B CDFG
Granth : Aad means "without end", Aad Granth was the name given by
Guru Arjun Dev ji to the Granth compiled by him in 1604 (CE) It comprised
of the compositions of his own and the predecessor Gurus as also other
Ahankar : Hankar. I-am-ness; egohood; Haumai.
Akal : Beyond the limits and influence of time; beyond
Akal Purkh : It means One Who is beyond the limits
and influence of time. It is used as a name for God (Waheguru).
Akhand Path : An uninterrupted, continuous recitation
of the entire Sri Guru Granth Sahib performed by a team of readers called
the Pathis. It takes approximately 72 hours. There should be no special
sanctity attached to performance of Akhand Path vis-a-vis Sahaj Path.
Amrit : The nectar; the drink of immortality. It
refer to the sanctified water used in the Sikh Initiation ceremony. It
is prepared by stirring it in an iron bowl with the double-edged sword
and continuous recitation of five bani’s by the five selected members of
Amrit Bani :
Amrit Chhakna : Literally, to taste the Amrit ; to take the
sikh baptism of the double-edged sword (i.e. Khande Bate da Amrit). After
this the initiate is keep observe the Rehat Maryada. Any five Singhs can
initiate, in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib, the others to the order
of the Khalsa
A term applied to the Sikh Scriptures, meaning the words
that are as sweet and immortalizing as nectar (Amrit).
One of the five banis recited for the preparation of Amrit
during the Sikh Initiation Ceremony.
Amrit Vela (Ambrosial Hour) : The ambrosial time, the
morning hours before dawn. This is considered the most suited time for
meditating on Naam.
Amritdhari : A Sikh who has partaken Amrit and thus
has been formally initiated into the Khalsa Panth. See Sehajdhari.
Amrit Sanchar : The initiation of a person or persons
into the Khalsa Panth. A Sikh when initiated becomes Khalsa. This is done
by the Panj Piaré (the five beloved ones, i.e. the five Singhs chosen
for the purpose), in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Anand Karaj : The Sikh wedding ceremony. This ceremony
takes place in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji. The couple to
be married present themselves before Sri Guru Granth Sahib and in the presence
of the congregation (Sangat.)take four rounds ( Lavan ) around Sri Guru
Granth Sahib ji to the accompaniment of the singing of the four stanzas(know
as Lavan), composed by Sri Guru
A state of bliss which is beyond description.
The name of a composition (Anand Sahib) by Guru Amar
Das ji, the third Nanak.
Anand Sahib : A long composition by Sri Guru Amar Das
ji, the third Guru Nanak contained in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji from page
to. It is comprised of 40 stanzas. Six stanzas (the first five and last
one)of this bani are recited before the congregation .
Anbhav Prakash : The experience of the existence and presence
of God, when one is at the wish divine feelings. The enlightened perception
of reality which is enjoyed by a person who has become a Gurmukh.
Antim Ardas: The prayer performed as the last of the funeral
rites of the Sikhs.
Artha : Literally means Wealth. A Sikh may acquire wealth
by honest means, but the acquisition of wealth should not become
the sole purpose of his life.
Asa Ki Var : Bani which is sung at dawn. It
is sung in a special way ( Us Raja Dhun).
Atma : It is the principle of life, feeling, thought
and action in man, regarded as a distinct entity separate from the body.
It is spiritual part of man which is immortal. The inner man or one’s spiritual
being, the soul. The atma is a part of Parmatma (God) and is considered
immortal like him.
Avtar : Literally ‘Descent’. According to Hinduism,
an incarnation of a deity, usually of the Hindu God Vishnu. According to
Sikh philosophy, God is sans birth and sans death. He is neither born nor
dies. Therefore, Sikhism does not recognize the avtarvad.
Babar Vani : (That is the utterances
concerning Babar) comprises some verses of Sri Guru Nanak Dev, recorded
in Sri Guru Granth Sahib (0n pages 360,417-18,722-23) in which the Guru
refers to the invasion of India by the Moghul emperor Babar. In the eyes
of Guru Nanak, Babar’s army was a marriage party of the sin (Pap Ki Janj).
During thios invasion, not even the ladies and the nobles were spared dishonour.
For the first time, in the history of Indian Literature, Guru Nanak rises,
in these verses, the word Hindustan (India).
An eye witness to the atrocities suffered by the people,
Guru Nanak was so much pained that he poured out:
Death disguised as the Moghul invaded us,
Guru Nanak himself had to undergo imprisonment for his voicing
protest against Babar.
There was slaughter and lamentation all around;
Did thou, O Lord, not feel the pain?
Baisakhi : Baisakhi or Vaisakhi is celebrated every year
on April 13th. Guru Amardas had initiated the annual gathering of the Sikhs
at Goindwal in 1567 on the occasion of Baisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh ji founded
the Khalsa order on the Baisakhi day in 1699 (the 29th march of 1699).
Barahmaha : A twelve month; Compositions about the twelve
months of a year by Guru Arjan dev ji in Raga Majh, by Guru Nanak in Raga
Bani : This word is applied to the utterances and writings
of the Gurus and the Bhagats which recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It
is thus, an abbreviated form of Gurbani or Bhagat Bani
Benati : An humble prayer or earnest entreaty; an
appeal for assistance; a supplication.
Bhagat Bani : The compositions of the Bhagats included
by Sri Guru Arjun Dev, in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji.
Bhog : Conclusion of the reading of Guru Granth
Sahib, generally followed by recitation of Gurbani and always followed
by the ardas. The conclusion of a Sikh congregation.
Bole So Nihal : The first Part of the Sikh war-cry meaning
"anyone who speaks will be happy." The second part of this war-cry is ‘Sat-Sri-
Buddha Dal: The 'army of the veterans' formed by
Nawab Kapur Singh in 1733 to look after the Sikh holy places, to preach
Sikh tenets and to initiate new converts to the Khalsa order.
Chandoa: The canopy which is hung
above Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji.
Chaupada : A poetical composition consisting of four stanzas.
Charan Pahul : Baptism ceremony involving the drinking
of water which the Guru had dipped their feet in. This was carried out
earlier till Sri Guru Gobind singh ji changed it into “Khande Bate Da Amrit”.
Chaupai : A four line stanza form used by some of the
Chaur : Yak hair or Man-made fiber embedded in a
metal placed in a wooden handle. It is ceremonially waved over Sri Guru
Granth Sahib ji as a symbol of respect.
Chela : A disciple of the guru.
Chola : Clothing of the Guru Sahiban. Also applied to
the coverings of the Nishan Sahib at a Gurudwara and the dress of the Nihangs.
Daswandh : The giving of one-tenth
of one’s income in charity.
Dhadi : A minstrel. The traditional singer who used
to sing in the praise of the Sikh Guru and recount the heroic deeds of
Dharam Yudh : A holy struggle (or war) undertaken as a
sacred duty in the defense of righteousness, or the cause of religion
or a way of life.
Diwali : The Hindu festival lights. It is also celebrated
by the majority of Sikhs. From the time of Guru Amar Das the Sikhs gathered
every year on this day.
Diwan : Congregational worship where Sri Guru Granth
Sahib ji is also present.
Doha : A verse form used commonly by Guru Nanak
Dev ji and Bhagat Kabir ji. It consists of stanzas of two rhyming
Five Vices (Panj dokh) : Kam (lust),
Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed), Moh (attachment) and Hankar (pride).
Forty Immortals ( Chalih Mukte) : Forty Sikhs who
died in the battle of Muktsar in 1762 and were blessed by Sri Guru Gobind
Gaddi : The seat or throne of guruship.
Gatka: The Sikh martial art.
Giani : One who possesses knowledge (gaini). A person
of spiritual knowledge. A university degree in Panjabi Language; also the
person who has attained this degree.
Granthi: A professional reader of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
ji. It may be a man or women, but has to be an Amritdhari. The functionary
incharge of a gurudwara.
Grihasth : The Sikh ideal that requires that one should
lead a married life. Have a family, earn ones living by honest socially
useful employment, serve ones fellow human beings and worship the one wonderful
Grihasthi : One who follows the Sikh ideal of Grihasth.
Gurbani : The writings of the Sikh Guru recorded in Guru
Guru : (Skt. Venerable, weighty) A preceptor, giving
religious instructions, a spiritual guide. Guru is an epithet used
for the founder of Sikhism, Sri Guru Nanak Dev, and his nine successors.
In Sikh scriptures and literature, ‘the word Guru’ does not always refer
to a human being. According to the context, it is also used for God, the
Guru’s word, the Holy Granth Sahib and the Panth.
Gurdwara : Literally, the religious place of the
Sikhs. Which generally is also the center of the social activity. It means
‘the Gateway to the Guru’.
Gurmat : A general term for Sikhism, including the
teachings of the Gurus, as well as the Rehat Maryada. The Sikh code of
Gurmatta : A resolution passed in a council presided
over by the Guru or the advice of the Guru.
Gurmukh : The person who keeps the Guru before self
and every thing else and thereby he becomes God-oriented and God-filled.
It is opposite of manmukh.
Gurmukhi : The script in which Punjabi language is written.
This is the script used in the Sikh scriptures. It was propagated by Guru
Nanak and Guru Angad
Gursikh : Someone who is deeply and sincerely devoted
to and follows the teachings of the Guru; a true Sikh or follower of the
Gurpurb : The celebration of the anniversary of
the birth (Parkash) or death (Jyoti Jot samana) of a Guru. And also the
anniversary of the installation of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib in 1604 and
the death anniversaries of the sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh.
Guru Granth Sahib : The eternal (word) Guru of the
Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh bestowed the Guruship on Sri Guru Granth Sahib
and thus stopped the practice of the human gurus in Sikhism.
Gutka : A small book containing the daily prayers
of the Sikhs. It may contain only one prayer, all the five daily prayers
and also some additional bani’s from Guru Granth Sahib.
Hankar : Pride, it is one of the
five weaknesses of human beings. (see Panj vikar)
Haumai : The sense of selfhood, I-am–ness; egohood;
self consciousness or the sense of individuality in man. It is sense of
self as filled against the universal soul. It is the tendency of isolating
the human soul that leads it to regard as independent of the universal
soul. When haumai is effaced, the soul merges into the oversoul. This sense
of I-am-ness is the wall or pall of falsehood which is the malady which
puts impediments in the path of development of the human soul. It is main
cause of separation of human soul from its creator. Guru Amar Das says
“The wife and the husband live together at the same place but between them
there stands the strong wall of I-ness” Matar.
Hola Mohalla : Annual spring gathering of the Sikhs
at Anandpur Sahib for contests, in sports and Sikh martial art, and warfare.
This annual celebration was initiated by Guru Gobind Singh in 1680 as a
substitute for the holi festival of the Hindus.
Hukam : The ordered will of God
Hukamnamah : A decree issued by the Gurus or the
Sikh religio-social authorities concerning the Sikh community. (Also see
Ik Oankar : The first word in Guru Granth
Sahib, and the first word of the Mul Mantra meaning Their is Only One God.
Jaap Sahib: A composition of Guru
Gobind Singh. It is read by Sikhs as part of their daily morning prayers.
Janam Sakhi : A bibliographic account of the live
of Guru Nanak, or other Gurus
Japji Sahib : Bani written by Guru Nanak Dev ji which
forms part of daily prayer in the morning .
Jathedar : The leader of a jatha group of Sikhs;
a leader organizer of the Shiromani Akali Dal, wrongly applied to
the appointed head of one of the five Sikh Takhts.
Jhatka : See, Jhatka Meat.
Jhatka Meat : Meat of an animal which has been killed
quickly with one stroke. Guru Gobind Singh dictated that Sikhs cannot eat
Muslim Halal (Kuttha) meat, where the animal has been slowly bled to death
or has been sacrificed according to a religious ceremony.
Jivan Mukti : The Sikh belief that a person may
achieve spiritual liberation (unity with God) during their lifetime and
not necessarily only on their death.
Kachha (Kachhera) : Special kind of knee-long
underwear. One of the five kakaars that an Amritdhari Sikh must wear. It
is a symbol of self control.
Kakaar : The five articles of faith, the name of which
begin with the Gurmukhi letter (kakkar) which resembles in sound to the
Roman letter ‘K’. Also called that an Amritdhari Sikh must wear. These
are Kesh(the uncut hair), Kirpan(the sword), Kara (the steel bangle), Kangha
(the comb) and Kachhera (knee-length breeches). (Also see Panj Kakaars).
Kalyug : An age in which righteousness and godliness is
forgotten; the iron age.
Kam : Lust, one of the five weaknesses. (See five vices)
Kangha : The wooden comb, one of the five kakaars
that every member of the Khalsa must wear. It represents hygiene and discipline.
Kara : Iron bracelet, one of the five kakaars that
every member of the Khalsa must wear. It is a symbol of restraint and remembrance
Karah Parshad A standard sweet pudding like dish served
at the conclusion of the religious congregations held in the presence of
Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji. It is as sacramental food given in equal measure
to all the members of the congregation.
Karma: Action, and also the reward or punishment of any
action done by man which is given by God’s order according to merit of
the action, God may give it or withhold it.
Kaur: The mandatory last name for a Khalsa / Sikh female
Kar Seva: The term is used to describe any voluntary
work carried out for religious purposes
Karta Purakh: The Creator of the universe.
Who himself pervades its creation, a name of God (Waheguru).
Katha: An detailed expression of Gurbani as enshrined
in Sri Guru Granth Sahib or the writing of Bhai Gurdas or one of the major
books of Sikh history.
Kesh: The uncut hair, one of the five kakaars that every
member of the Khalsa must have. It is a symbol of spirituality.
Kesdhari : The Sikh who do not cut hair, may or may not
Keski : A short turban, worn between the turban and the
hair by some of the Sikhs. It is also worn by some Amritdhari Sikh females.
Khalsa: Literally: "The personal property of a King".
Khalsa is the name Guru Gobind Singh gave to the Sikhs after having administered
Khande ki Pahul (Amrit) for the first time at Baisakhi day, the 29th March
Khande Ki Pahul : The ceremony introduced by Guru Gobind
Singh in place of Charanpahul. In it a double-edged sword is used for preparing
Amrit to be dispensed to the person to be baptized.
Kirpan (Sword): One of the five kakaars that every member
of the Khalsa must wear. It is a symbol of fight against injustice and
Kirtan: Musical rendering of Gurbani, preferrably
according to the Raag indicated there on, it is never to be sung to the
tunes of film melodies or pop songs.
Kirtan Darbar : An elaborate performance of Kirtan by
different Kirtani Jatha’s.
Kirtani Jatha’s : A group of professional and musicians
and singers who sing hymns from the sacred scriptures of the Sikhs.
Kirtan Sohila : See Sohila.
Krodh Anger, one of the five weaknesses.
Kurahits: The 4 cardinal sins for the Sikhs. These are:
Cutting, trimming, shaving or removing hairs from one’s body, using tobacco
or any other intoxicant in any form; eating kuttha meat, and committing
Kuttha : Muslim Halal or the Jewish Kosher meat, obtaining
by slowly bleeding the animal to death or the meat that has been sacrificed
according to some religious ceremony.
Langar (Community Kitchen) : It is the
charitable distribution of food. It was introduced by Guru Nanak Dev and
every Sikh is expected to contribute towards it.
Maghi: Sikh festival held every
year on 14th January to celebrate the memory of the martyrdom of the Forty
Immortals who died fighting in the in battle at Muktsar.
Mahla: Pronounced as Maihla. Each of the six Gurus
whose compositions have been included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib has used
the word ‘Nanak’ as his pen name. The word Mahla has been used to specify
the author of the composition following it. Thus, Mahla 1 stands for Guru
Nanak Dev, Mahla 2 indicates Guru Angad Dev and Mahla 3 means Guru Amar
Mahant: The corrupt officials who had control of the gurudwaras
prior to the establishment of Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
in 1925. the Sikhs had to launch a long struggle against them during Gurdwara
Sadhar Lahir to free the Gurdwaras from under their control.
Manji Sahib: The small cot or bed upon which
Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji is placed as a symbol of its sovereignty.
Even some of the Gurdwaras have been named as Manji Sahib.
Manmukh A person who is under the influence of ego, keeps
his self or his own mana(mind) before him in relation to all other things
including the Guru. He is therefore, self willed and self-centered person
and has forgotten God, the opposite of a Gurmukh.
Mattha Tekna Bowing down and touching the floor with one’s
forehead in front of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji as a sign of reverence and
Maya: The illusion of the reality of sensory expressions
and the feeling of being wrapped up in the material world and being attached
Mela: Any Sikh religious festival other than the
celebration of the birth or the death anniversary of the Guru Sahiban.
Miri and Piri: The concept of spiritual and worldly sovereignty.
Sikhs are expected to maintain the balance between the two. This idea was
announced by Guru Hargobind Sahib, when at the time of his ascension to
the Gur-Gaddi, he wore two swords symbolizing Miri and Piri.
Misal: A combination of Sikh leaders in the eighteenh
century for the purpose of defence and for the occupation of territories.
A group of Sikhs headed by Jathedar in the eighteenth century. There were
12 Misals, each headed by a Jathedar. They were often fighting with each
other. Maharaja Ranjit Singh united all the Misals.
Moh: Attachment, one of the five weaknesses.
Mukti: Spiritual liberation from the cycles of birth
Mul Mantra: The opening lines of the Guru
Granth Sahib. It is considered the cornerstone of Sikhism. "God is one.
His name is True. He is the Creator. His is without fear. He is inimical
to none. His existence is unlimited by time. He is beyond the cycles of
birth and death, self existent and can be realized through the grace of
the Guru." The Mul Mantra appears over times in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji,
sometimes in an abbreviated form.
Mundavani: The word means seal and refers to the
conclusion in Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji and describes the spiritual
qualities of reading and following Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji.
Nagar Kirtan: Outdoor procession led by
Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji and five Amritdhari Sikhs usually prior to the
celebration of a Gurpurab.
Nagara A Kettle drum found in some gurudwaras. It was
introduced by Sri Guru Hargobind ji to be beaten when langar was ready.
It is a symbol of royal authority.
Nam: Name of God. Sikhism places emphasis on the
rememberance of God through meditation on God’s name.
Nam Japna, Kirt Karna, Vand Chakna: Meditation on God’s
name, honest hard work and sharing one’s earnings with others. These are
the three fundamental requirements which a Sikh householder is expected
to observe. Guru Nanak says- those who earn their livelihood through work,
and give away a part of it to the charity. Such ones, Nanak know the ways
to God. (See Langar).
Nam Japna : Practice of living in the presence of God.
Nam Simran: The rememberance of God through meditation.
Nihang: Literally means an alligator who is supreme in
the waters. It is an order of the Sikhs who follow the lifestyle of the
Sikh soldiers of time of Guru Gobind Singh ji. They wear blue robes and
practice martial arts.
Nirankar: A name of God meaning the one who has
no physical form.
Nirgun: Applied to God meaning one without form or material
Nitnem: Literally, the daily routine; The daily prayers
that a Sikh is expected to read. Nitnem consists of reading Japji Sahib
of Guru Nanak Dev ji, Jaap and Ten Swayyas of Guru Gobind Singh ji in the
morning; Rehras, a collection of nine hymns by Guru Nanak Dev ji, Guru
Amar Das ji and Guru Arjun dev ji at sunset and Sohila comprising, five
hymns by the three Gurus at bedtime.
Oankar: God as the Primal Being.
It also refers to a compositon of Guru Nanak Dev ji which appears on pages
929 to -of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Pada: Division of a hymn record
in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji, it varies in length from one to four verses.
Palki: A ‘palanquin’; The wooden, metal or marble palanquin
in which Sri Guru Granth Sahib is ceremonially installed.
Panj Kakaar: Literaly the five things the names
of which begine with ‘K’. The five articles of faith which must be worn
at all times by every member of Khalsa. These are: Kesh (uncut hairs),
kachhera (special type of resembling knickers), kangha (a wooden comb),
kara (iron bracelet), and kirpan (the sword). These five articles of faith
are also called the five symbols, because in one sense they are merely
external observances. But , in another respect, these are the vows of self-discipline,
quartial spirit, brotherhood and submission to the Guru. These five K’s
not only mark out the Sikhs from the Hindus but also from all other people
of the world.
Panj Piaras The five beloved ones, referring to the first
five Sikhs initiated into the Khalsa order by Guru Gobind Singh. Five Khalsa
Sikhs who initiate a new member into the Khalsa Panth..
Panth: The entire Sikh community.
Parkarma: The walkway around the sarovar found at
many gurudwaras; circum ambulation.
Prakash Karna: The early morning ceremony when Sri
Guru Granth Sahib is formally opened and the day’s worship begins.
Path: Reading of Gurbani. (See Akhand Path)
Patit: A Khalsa Sikh who has failed to live upto
the vows of the Khalsa order and has commited one of the 4 cardinal sins
Pauri : Their length and metre are both variable.
Pothi: A book or volume of religious hymns.
Raag: One of the melodic formulas
of Indian Music having the melodic shape, rhythm and ornamentation prescribed
by tradition. (See some dictionary of Music).
Raagi: One who sings the hymns of Sri Guru granth Sahib.
Literally of an expert in the raga vidya.
Raj Karega Khalsa: The battle cry of the Sikhs
during the rule of Banda Singh Bahadur meaning "The Khalsa shall rule".
Rehat Nama: A manual of conduct for the Khalsa.
There are a number of them written by various Sikhs dating back to the
Rehat Maryada: The Sikh Code of Conduct finalized
by 71 individuals, institutions and representative bodies of the Sikhs
in the year 1945 published and distributed free by the Shromani Gurdwara
Parbandhak Committee. Its English and hindi translations have also now
been published by the SGPC.
Rehras: A collection of 9 hymns, 4 by Guru Nanak,
3 by Guru Ram Das and 2 by Sri Guru Arjun dev ji which are read at sunset
as part of Nitnem.
Rumala: The piece of cloth which is used as a ceremonial
cover for Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Sach Khand : The realm of truth, the final
stage of spiritual ascent where the believer becomes one with God.
Sadh Sangat: Literally an association or congregation
of the ‘Sadh’ or pions persons. A Sikh congregation or community.
Sahibzada : An epithet used for the four sons of Guru
Gobind Singh named Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh, Fateh Singh.
All of them died as marytrs to the Sikh faith. While Sahibzada Ajit Singh
and Jujhar Singh died fighting in the battle at Chamkaur Sahib; the younger
Sahibzadas Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh embraced martyrdown by being bricked
alive at Sirhind where Gurudwara stands to their memory.
Sahaj: The state of spiritual equipoise resulting
from the attainment of union with God.
Sahaj Path: A non-continous reading of the entire
Guru Granth Sahib. The period of time for finishing the entire reading
is not fixed..
Sahib: A term of respect used for the Sikh Guru.
It is also applied to the historical gurdwaras and personages.
Sakhi: Story about a Guru.
Sangat: A religious assembly or congregation. A congregation
of Sikhs; the collective body of the Sikhs at a particular place.
Sangrand The first day of the month according to the Indian
calendar. The relevant portion of the composition Barhmaha by Guru Nanak
or Guru Arjun Dev relating to each month is read out. (See Sahib Singh-
Sant : Literally a holy person or saint. In the Sri Guru
Granth Sahib only the Gurus or God have been addressed as Sant. Even Kabir,
Namdev etc. have been referred to as Bhagats and not sants.
Sarbat Khalsa: A representative meeting of all the
Sikhs to consider important matters concerning the Panth.
Saropa: Literally head to foot; a robe or token of honour;
gift of honour presented to a person or persons by the Sikh community.
Usually a length of cloth for tying a turban or a scarf worn over the shoulders.
Sarovar: The pool or a tank for bathing found at many
Sat Guru: The supreme Guru, God.
Sat Sri Akal: The answer to the Jaikara, the Sikh war-cry.
It Meaning "The Immortal God is True".
Satyug: An era in which Truth prevails, the opposite of
Seli: A woolen cord worn by Guru Nanak Dev around
his turban. It was worn as a symbol of living in the world but not being
engrossed in the worldly matters. It was passed on to each successive Guru
upto Guru Hargobind who chose to wear the two swords miri & piri instead
of the seli.
Seva: Service to one’s fellow beings, one of the cornerstones
of the Sikh way of life.
Seva Panthi: A Sikh whose life is devoted to the service
of the Sikh community.
Shabad: The religious hymns contained in Sri Guru Granth
Shaheed: The person-Arabic meaning of this word
is “A Witness”. Title used before the name of someone who has died for
the Sikh faith as a martyr.
Shalok: Couplet found in the Guru Granth Sahib ji.
Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.): Committee
which overseas the administration of the historical Gurdwaras in Punjab,
Haryana & Himachal Pradesh. It is also publication of the literature
on Sikhism and the establishment and management of many Sikh educational
Sikhi: The teachings of Sikhism; the Sikh way of
Sikhia: Advice given to the couple during the Sikh marriage
Singh: Literally, a Lion; the common last name of the
male Sikhs. It is a compulsory last name of the baptized male Sikhs.
Sodar: Literally that door or gate; A composition with
the tittle ‘so daru ragu Asa Mahala Pahila’ composed by Guru Nanak. It
is the first hymn of the day at a Gurudwaras read by the Sikhs at sunset.
Sohila: Collection of 5 hymns. Three of these are by Guru
Nanak, 1 by Guru Ram Das and 1 by Guru Arjun Dev. Sohila is recited as
part of the Nitnem at bed time. It also forms a part of the Sikh funeral
rites and is recited at the crematory after fire has been set to the dead
body to be cremated.
Sukh Asan : The formal final closure of Sri Guru Granth
Sahib, generally at the end of the day at a Gurudwara
Sukhmani Sahib: A major composition of Sri Guru
Arjun Dev recorded from page 262 to 296 of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It
has 24 astpadis.
Takht: Literally; a throne; A seat
of Sikh authority. There are five gurudwaras which are designated as takhts.
These are: Sri Akal Takht Sahib (at Amritsar, opposite Sri Harimandir Sahib),
Sri Damdama Sahib, Takht Keshgarh Sahib (at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab), Sri
Hazoor Sahib (at Nanded) and Takht Patna Sahib (at Patna, at Bihar).
Tankhaiya: A person who has committed a religious
offence meriting punishment.
Waheguru : The Sikh name of God.
Waheguru ji ka Khalsa Waheguru ji ki Fateh: Sikh salutation.
Zafarnama: The Zafarnama, literally
meaning ‘an Episode of Victory’, is a historical letter written in haste
person after the battle of Chamjaur Sahib (in 1705 AD) by Guru Gobind Singh
to Emperor Aurangzeb. It is not a petition to the emperor. It is in fact
an indictment of the emperor who has been repeatedly chided for breach
of faith caused by a morally indefensible attack; by the Moghul troops,
on the Guru and his followers after they had vacated Anandpur Sahib on
the solemn assurances of safety given to them by Aurangzeb’s officers.
The Zafarnama depicts Auangzeb as a biased, cunning and a willful hypocrite
and a deceitful ooth-breaker whose oaths on the Quran were fraudulent and
meaningless. The Guru’s letter of victory gives microscopic details of
the misdeeds and crimes of the colons government and officials. it is the
only reliable source which provides a vivid and detailed description of
the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.